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Tuesday, February 25, 2014

Kibakoganea Nagai, 1984

The genus Kikobaganea was erected by Nagai in 1984 as subgenus of Fruhstoferia, Hirasawa promoted it to genus level in 1992. Their typical characteristic is the inner lobe on basal lateral edge of each pronotum side. There are total 14 known species around South East Asia and South China. And they belong to 3 groups (based on structure of the male genitalia organ):

Group 1 with very short and apex separated parameres:

K. formosana (Kurosawa & Kobayashi, 1975) (Do Collection)

This species is endemic in Taiwan, they are quite smaller than other member of the genus, they are green/yellow with black part marking beetles.

K. sinica Bouchard

K. kraatzi Miyake & Muramoto, 2003

This first known from Vietnam then later found from South China and Hainan, the species had been misidentified with K. sexmaculata in a long time but later be described as a new species.

K. opaca Muramoto, 1993 (Do Collection)

This species found from China and recently be recorded from North Vietnam.

Group 2 with longer and not separated parameres which are asymmetrical:

K. kawaii Muramoto, 2005

K. koyamai (Hirasawa, 1989) (Do Collection)

K. kumei (Hirasawa, 1989) (Do Collection)

Last group, group 3, genitalia with not separated and symmetrical parameres:

K. dohertyi (Ohaus, 1905)

K. fujiokai Miyake & Muramoto, 1992 (Do Collection) - Male

Male of K. fujiokai, photographed by Cuong Do, Lam Dong Province

K. fujiokai Miyake & Muramoto, 1992 Female, laying her egg in breeding box. Specimens collected from Lam Dong Privnce

K. sexmaculata (Kraatz, 1900) (Do Collection)
This species is the most early known species among members of the genus. It was first recorded from North Vietnam then be found wider distribute in the area later. The type locality of the species is same to K. kraatzi

K. tamdaoensis Miyake & Muramoto

K. vernicata (Benderitter)

K. canhcamsung Do, 2013 (male holotype) from Tay Giang, Quang Nam Province

K. yoshitomii Nagai

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

Didrepanephorus Wood Mason, 1878

Didrepnaephorus is the most diversity genus among horned rutelinae, there are total 16 known species of the genus.

Didrepanephorus arnaudi Muramoto, 2003 found from Kon Tum South Vietnam (Do Collection), characteristic with 2 yellow hair stuffs on pronotum dorsally.

Didrepanephorus bifurcifer Wood-Mason, 1878
Didrepanephorus birmanicus (Arrow, 1907)
Didrepanephorus fukinukii (Muramoto & Araya, 2000)

Didrepanephorus lamdongensis Muramoto, 2013 (paratype in Do Collection), this species is new described from Lam Dong and Khanh Hoa Province, South Vietnam in 2013.

Didrepanephorus lao Nagai, 2005
Didrepanephorus malayanus (Nagai & Hirasawa, 1991)

Didrepanephorus mizunumai Nagai & Hirasawa, 1991 (Do Collection)

Didrepanephorus mucronatus Arrow, 1921
Didrepanephorus nishiyamai Muramoto, 2006
Didrepanephorus ohbayashii (Nagai, 2004)

Didrepanephorus pilosus Bouchard, 2007 (Do Collection), known only from Laos

Didrepanephorus subvittatus Benderitter, 1929

Didrepanephorus takuyai (Muramoto, 2003) an endemic species from South Center of Vietnam.

The species D. yunnanus currently consist of 5 subspecies, however I think they should be upgraded to be species levels because they are quite difference each other base on their structure of male genitalia organ.

Didrepanephorus yunnanus clermonti Benderitter, 1929 (Do Collection)

Didrepanephorus yunnanus kachinensis Muramoto, 2005
Didrepanephorus yunnanus piaoacensis (Nagai, 2004)
Didrepanephorus yunnanus wakaharai (Nagai, 2004)

Didrepanephorus yunnanus yunnannus (Ohaus, 1911) (Do Collection)

Didrepanephorus zen Muramoto, 2009 is known as an endemic species of the center of Vietnam.

Sunday, February 16, 2014

Dicaulocephalus Gestro, 1888

There are only 3 species of the genus of which type spcies is Dicaulocephalus feae. They distributed mainly in Indochina.
While Dicaulocephalus fruhstorferi Felsche, 1901 wide distributes in Indochina D. feae Gestro, 1888 found only in North of Thailand and Myanmar; and D. antilocapra Bezdek & Pachol├átko, 2001 being considered is endemic species and found only in South Center of Vietnam.

Dicaulocephalus fruhstorferi Felsche, 1901 from South Vietnam (Do Collection)

Dicaulocephalus fruhstorferi Felsche, 1901 - small male (Do Collection)

Dicaulocephalus feae Gestro, 1888 (Male) (Do Collection)

Dicaulocephalus feae Gestro, 1888 (Female) (Do Collection)

Dicaulocephalus antilocapra Bezdek & Pacholàtko, 2001 (South Vietnam) (Do Collection)

Ceroplophana Gestro, 1893

There are only 2 species C. malysiana and C. modiglianii known in the genus currently, and they have been recorded only in Borneo and Sumatra area. They are very unique insects of Rutelinae with a obviously "horn" curved up from it head. The object indeed is developed of its labrum, not mandible and it is unmovable.

Recorded distributions of Ceroplophana

The species C. malaysiana consist of two subspecies: C. malaysiana malaysiana Kuijten, 1977 (found from Malaysia) and C. malaysiana nobuyukii Nagai, 1996 (found from Borneo).

C. malaysiana malaysiana Kuijten, 1977 (Do Collection)

There are 3 subspecies of species C. modiglianii: C. modiglianii  modiglianii Gestro, 1893 (found from Sumatra), C. modiglianii borneensis Ohaus, 1911 (found from Borneo) and C. modiglianii hirasawai Nagai, 1996 (found from Sumatra).

The differences of members between species and subspecies of Ceroplophana clearly in structure of the male genitalia (penis organ).

Ceroplophana modiglianii borneensis Ohaus, 1911 (Do Collection)

Ceroplophana modiglianii modiglianii Gestro, 1893 (Do Collection)

Tuesday, February 11, 2014

Fruhstorferia, Rutelinae, Scarabaeidae, Coleoptera, Beetle

Fruhstorferia Kolbe, 1894
A genus of Rutelinae, Scarabaeidae
Type species of the genus is Fruhstorferia javanus, known from West Java, Indonesia

There are 6 species which are belong to the genus and can be divided into 3 main groups:

Group F. javana include 4 species, typical with point, slender penis and they distribute in Indo-Malay area

Fruhstorferia javana Kolbe, 1894 (Java) (Do Collection)

Fruhstorferia flavipenis Nagai, 1984 (Malaysia) (Do Collection)

Fruhstorferia nigromoliebris Nagai, 1984 (Borneo) (Do Collection)

Fruhstorferia ohtanii Nagai, 1989 (Do Collection)

Group of black Fruhstorferia, consist of single species F. anthracina Ohaus, 1903. The species with whole body shining black, quite close to group F. javana. They have been found from North Vietnam and Laos, and considered to be distributed also in South China.

Fruhstorferia anthracina Ohaus, 1903

The last group contain a large size and single species: F. egreria Pouilaude, 1915. This is maybe the biggest species of horn rutelinae and it has been known with very few records since be published with a single male specimen that was collected from South Vietnam. Indeed, there are only two records of the species, first by the author and the type now is being in the Paris Museum of Nature History; the second record by a Japanese with another male collected from Kon Tum Province, South Vietnam. Base on the structure of the penis of the species, maybe this species maybe very close to Pukupuku or something that not belong to Fruhstorferia. Both taxonomy and biology/ecology of the species are unknown and to be a big questions are why it to be so rare, what is their host plan as well as its behavior. In case of it closes or belong Pukupuku, it is possible that the mature of the species be emerging in very early time of the season, and difference from almost of other beetles. If this be true, it will be same to another member of Pukupuku, P. katsurai (Muramoto, 2002) recorded from North Vietnam and South China recently, the mature found in very early of the season (December to February). The other member of Pukupuku, P. curta, the co-type was noted that collecting time is about December from Laos. The mature of the genus appear in very early season, difference from all remain members of the group. Maybe the same thing happen with F. egregia!
Photos of holotype of F. egreria can be seen in the link here

Horned Rutelinae, Flower Beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae)

Horned Rutelinae, flower beetles or May beetles are insects of Coleoptera Order. They belong Rutelini Tribe, and distribute in South East Asia. Males of insects are typical with a developed mandibles forming a pair of horns which are absent in females, in case of Peperonota, the hind part of pronotum forming a drosal horn.

Same to other members of Rutelini, horned Rutelinae feed on pendants and other parts of flowers so the mature forms usually be found in flower season. Their also be considered as a factor of pollen transferring of their host plans. Their host plans mainly belong to Magnoliaceae and Annonaceae which wide distribute in the oriental area. The mature eats pollen, pendant for their food, not same to other member of most scarab beetles so they can not be bred with the jelly, it is the key for insect breeder who want to make generations of this kind of insect at home. The mature beetles be attracted by light and their habitat are tropical forest with hemi-tropical climate. Elevation of their habitat from 200m to more than 1500m. However until now, the detail of biology and ecology of life cycle of horned rutelinae have not been understood well.

The taxonomical works on horned rutelinae be done mainly in 10 recent years. This group consist of about 50 species and subspecies and distribute in 8 genera: KibakoganeaDicaulocephalus, Didrepanephorus, Pukupuku, Fruhstorferia, Ceroplophana, Masumotokoganea, and Peperonota.

Male of Ceroplophana malaysiana malaysiana Kuijten, 1977 (Do Collection)

Peperonota cristata Arrow 1917 (Do Collection)

Masumotokoganea kinabalensis (Ohaus 1932) large male (Do Collection)

Masumotokoganea kinabalensis (Ohaus 1932) small male (Do Collection)

Didrepanephorus yunnanus yunnanus (Ohaus 1911) (Do Collection)

Didrepanephorus takuyai (Muramoto 2003) (Do Collection)

Fruhstoreferia javana javana Kolbe 1894 (Do Collection)

Pukupuku curta (Arrow, 1929) Co-Type (Do Collection)