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Friday, April 25, 2014

Rhinagrion hainanensis Wilson and Reels, 2001

This species was described based on the male holotype that collected from Hainan. Latter the female and its larvae was described in detail by Sasamoto et al. in 2011. The species R. yokoii Sasamotoi, 2003 was found from Laos is synonym of this species. It is the second species of the genus that found in Vietnam, the other is R. mima which was found from other South East Asian countries and in Phu Quoc Island, Vietnam as well. 

A medium-small sized damselfly, this species has colourful body with black, cream-emerald, cream-yellowish, turquoise, red-brown and brick-red marking. The head is narrower in width than it of other later damselflies with three ocelli are quite big and close together. The face is unmistakeable with two lateral cream-emerald markings. The thorax is colourful; the dorsum of the synthorax is black with two big cream-yellowish markings while in lateral view, the thorax is change from red-brown to cream-turquoise with black markings. In ventral view, the synthorax and inner side of femora are light-turquoise. The dorsal abdomen segments are red dark brown with cream-yellowish and dark-turquoise marking. Remarkably, at ventral view, the sixth to eighth segments are bright brick-red while they are light orange in the ninth and tenth segments. Their wings are petiolate, hyaline and alway in horizontal position at rest. 

They live in clean, swift and shallow streams in good humid forests of the centre of Vietnam. The colourful body makes the species to be brightening in any views: dorsal, lateral or ventral. They are weak flied insects and usually hide in vegetations that hanging over the water.

Male, lateral view, photographed by Cuong Do, Phu Yen provine

Close up face of male, photographed by Cuong Do, Phu Yen Province

Wednesday, April 23, 2014

Rhipidolestes owadai Asahina, 1997

This species was described the first time based on specimens from Tam Dao National Park, by Asahina in 1997. Recently, it has been known that very common locally in pristine forests of North Mountain in Vietnam. 

A small medium size damselfly, the body is deep black with cream yellow marking. Males and females are similar. The head with distinct cream yellow face. The thorax is very typical with two cream yellow strips in lateral view. Of which, the anterior strip continues from synthorax to prothorax. The wings are petiolated and always open at rest. The legs are red brown; with base of femur is cream yellow. There is a spin on dorsal side of 10th segment of the male abdomen. 

The damselfly is found in pristine forests of High Mountain with elevation about 1000 m. The females fly far from their breeding sites while the males usually guard their territory where are humid streams in dark forests. However, they are weakly flying insects; often hide themselves in dark of canopy or in side vegetation of the forests. 

Male, photographed by Cuong Do, Tam Dao

Female, photographed by Cuong Do, Tam Dao

Tuesday, April 22, 2014

Noguchiphaea yoshikoae Asahina, 1976

Asahina (1976) described a new calopterygid genus Noguchiphaea based on two male specimens of N. yoshikoae Asahina, 1976 from Doi Inthanon in Chiang Mai Province in the northern part of Thailand. Subsequently Asahina (1981) described the female of this species, which was collected in the same area - Doi Suthep in Chiang Mai - as the type, and provided additional characters for the genus. In a third paper, Asahina (1985) described further characters of both sexes and considered N. yoshikoae as endemic to Thailand.

Recently, the species has been found in north of Vietnam, Tam Dao National Park and Xuan Son National Park. This is a small-medium sized damselfly; the head and body are metallic green with cream-yellow patches on lower synthorax. As well as it of the female, the male prothorax has distinct structure dorsal posterior lobe. The inferior anal appendages are undeveloped in the male. The wings are hyaline with apical fade spot and both fore and hind wings are petiolate at very base. They fly in the end of rain season in good forests of high mountains and do not live far from the breeding sites. They are weak flying insects and usually perch on vegetations near clean running water.

Male, photographed by Cuong Do, Tam Dao National Park

Female, photographed by Cuong Do, Tam Dao National Park

Actias chapae bezverkhovi Sochivko & Ivshin, 2008

This species is one of the most beautiful moth of Saturniidae family that found from Vietnam with very long tails of the hind wings.  The species was described based on material that collected from Sa Pa (as its name, Chapa), Lao Cai Province.

Since 2008, two subspecies of Actias chapae have been found: A. chapae chapae and A. chapae bezverkhovi. The previous subspecies distributed in North Vietnam and South of China and the later is only found from South Vietnam. They are high elevation moths and live in pristine forests with high level of humidity. A. chapae bezverkhovi be in mature form in April to October duration of the year. The subspecies was record in 2 provinces, Lam Dong and Dak Lak.

Male, photographed by Cuong Do, Chu Yang Sin National Park, Dak Lak

Neurobasis chinensis (Linnaeus, 1758)

This is quite common Asian species and is one of the earliest known species of dragonfly. It was named by Linnae based on a picture in book cover of bird. And because in the picture the specimen was drawn with the wings in horizontal position, this species formerly was put in Anisoptera suborder by Linnae. Name of species is specified its locality, from China.

The medium sized damselfly, this species has shining green body and hind-wing is metallic green. The head, thorax and abdomen of the male are metallic green while female has fader green body. The wings of the male distinguish from them of the female. Female’s fore-wing has a white spot at pterosigma position – psedopterostigma, while male’s fore-wings are dust yellowish hyaline and instead of psedopterostigma, there is a white spot at nodus position. The hind-wings of female are shinning colorful, metallic green with an apical black patch on upper side and they are quite dust yellowish hyaline in female.

They are very active damselflies, and live at open swift streams from low to high lands. They never fly far from their breeding habitat; males are strict in territorial defense by showing their flash metallic green hind-wings. Males fly very close to the water surface while females usually perch on vegetations nearby. In courtship flying, males usually keep the hind-wing open in horizontal position to show the flash green upper surface of the wings under sunshine. Sometime males just clap their hind-wings as resting and the action is signal to other males in territorial informing or to coming females for mating. Females insert their eggs into aqua vegetation tissue; in many cases, female sinks in the water during the oviposition while the male around.

Male, photographed by Cuong Do, Ba Vi

Male, photographed by Cuong Do, Pioac Nature Reserve, Cao Bang Province

Male, showing his hind wing in opened position, photographed by Cuong Do, Hon Ba Nature Reserve, Khanh Hoa Province

Atrocalopteryx laosica Fraser, 1933

Species name is specified the locality of holotype which was recorded from Laos.
A large size damselfly, the body is shining metallic green. The legs are slim with long spin rows. In the sunlight, the body reflects from metallic red-green to blue-green in colour. Two pairs of wing always fold up above the abdomen; they are red-black and darker than those of Atrocalopteryx coomani. The abdomen is somehow flattened in dorsal-ventral side.

The mature forms fly at opened but clear streams with rich of oxygen on highlands of west-north of Vietnam. The damselflies usually appear from middle to the end of rain season with high humidity. They are not very active insects and often perch on vegetation near the water.

Male, photographed by Cuong Do, Lao Cai

Friday, April 18, 2014

Calopteryx coomani (Fraser, 1935)

This species was described by R. Martin in 1904 base on the specimens collected from Tonkin, Vietnam.

A large size damselfly, it is shining metallic green with two pairs of dark colour wings. The head, thorax and abdomen are green metallic, the legs are delegate and spiny, the middle and hind tibia are curve. The wings are dark, the colour is same in both sides, the wings are not unicolour, and remarkably there is a large basal anal patch hyaline in forewings. The forewings of females have a white spot at pterostigma position and it is called psedopterostigma.

They are live at clean streams in pristine forests on high limestone mountains of North Vietnam. The mature forms fly during the rain season and they live in shade area with high humidity. Occasionally, males perch in the sunlight with the wings folded along the abdomen and show their shining metallic green body. They are not so active and usually fly weakly among branches of vegetations near the breeding sites. 

Male, Tam Dao National Parck, photographed by Cuong Do

Female with the white spot on her wings, Tam Dao National Park, photographed by Cuong Do

Caliphaea confusa Hagen in Selys, 1859

This species was recorded the by Asahina from North Vietnamese forests in 1995. Dumon 2005, analysed the ITS and Ribosome gene area of members of Caloptera and the result showed that genome type of Caliphaea is not close to it of Noguchiphaea as their structure of their wing venation.

It is a small size calopterid damselfly. The synthorax is shining metallic green with yellowish marking, the abdomen is slim and shining metallic green with end segments usually are pruinose on dorsal side. Their wings are hyaline or amber hyaline, slightly petiolate at base and always are folded at rest; the pterostigma is always present.

They are rare species but common locally, live in pristine forests of Limestone Mountains in the North of Vietnam. Both male and female are weak flying and they usually rest on vegetations around their breeding sites. Larvae of the species live in clear, fast running streams with high concentrate of oxygen and covered by vegetation.

Male, photographed by Cuong Do, Hoang Lien National Park, Sa Pa, Lao Cai Province

Archineura hetaerinoides (Fraser, 1933)

The species is a heavy built damselfly, and it is one of the biggest zygopteran. The body is variable from dark green to copper and there are pruinose patches on the synthorax and the abdomen. Their wings are hyaline with smoky patch at base. In the mature forms, the wings somehow to be light orange and look dust. Male and female are not dimorphism so they look similar and female is distinct with her robust abdomen.

They live in open clear and swift streams of secondary forests of high land in the North of the country with elevation over 700m. Mature forms do not fly far from their breeding habitats and the male keeps his territory even in rain. Individuals of both sexes perch not so high above of the water surface, usually they rest on rocks or water plants near the flowing water. 

Male just above the water, photographed by Cuong Do, Lao Cai Province

Dysphaea gloriosa Fraser, 1938

They are similar in the size of D. basitincta, the body robust built and more colourful. Males of the species are deep black with dark orange marking on the thorax and the abdomen. The wings are narrow and long, their colour is amber hyaline and make the wings are brighten in sunlight. The wings usually are folded at rest; particularly they are sometime open as perching above the water. The females are less colourful than the males with their wings are more hyaline.

Their habitats are similar to those of D. bastitincta but D. gloriosa is much more widespread in the country. They have been found at streams or rivers in open secondary forests or lowland areas. They do not live far from their breeding habitats and usually perch on vegetations around streams.

Male, photo taken by Cuong Do, Hoa Binh

Dysphaea basitincta Martin, 1904

This species was described by R. Martin in 1904 base on specimens collected from Tonkin, Vietnam.

They are medium-large sized damselflies and the heavy body is unicolour shining black. Their elongate wings are dark at haft base and tip.

They live in open opaque rivers with mud and sand bottom layer; the males are active and highly territorial. They fold their wing at rest but many times the clap or open the wings under strong sunlight above the water surface. Mostly the damselflies fly not far from their breeding habitats but some time they fly very high and perch high above on vegetation beside the rivers. 

Male, photographed by Cuong Do, Mai Chau, Hoa Binh

Euphaea masoni Selys, 1879

This species is close to E. guerini and E. hirita, three species are very similar in external structure generally. The damselflies had been mixed with E. guerini as same species but now there are many evidences show that they are three distinct species. 

Similar to its two sister species, they are medium damselflies with dark colours of body and wing generally. The mainly typical characteristic of male individuals of this species is the abdomen without hair or hair stuffs in lateral view. Beside, in dorsal view or upper side of the wings of male, in sunshine and as they open their wings, the hind-wings show its iridescent red flash. Their females are not very special recognized by morphological characteristics with hyaline wings and black body with yellow-greenish markings.

This species somehow is more widespread than the others and have been found over the whole of the country. They live in clear, swift and hemi-shade streams in both disturbed and primary forests. Males protect their territory by fighting and showing their red flash hind-wings and mate with coming females, the later behaviour also use in their courtship. The females are less active and usually perch higher positions.

Male with red flash wings, photographed by Cuong Do, Phu Yen Province

Close up to the face of the male, photographed by Cuong Do, Phu Yen Province

Male with wings are close, showing the blue color of underside, photographed by Cuong Do, Quang Binh Provicne

Under the sunshine, above stream, the male look very colorful with his red wings, photographed by Cuong Do, Quang Binh Province

Euphaea guerini Rambur, 1842

Formerly, together with E. masoni, this species was known as subspecies taxon level but now it is believed to belong into a distinct species. Tol 1995, proposed distributional evident of them in Vietnam and in his papers two species were separated in geography. However two species have been reported at the same stream of a secondary forest in Quang Binh Province so they must be also distinguished in ecology and behaviors.

A medium damselfly, this species has dark body and wings in lateral view. The head is black; the thorax of male is dust black, and dark brown with yellow strips markings in female. The legs are short and stout with a row of teeth on front edge of femurs. The wings of male are dark and on upper side and in the sunlight, the hind wings have green/blue flash (the color changes up to position of view) on basal anal area. In female, wings are hyaline with basal orange-yellowish area. Male abdomen is black with a stuff of hairs on lower apical corner of segment tenth in lateral view.

The mature forms do not fly very far from their breeding habitat; they live at clear streams in good forests. The males are not easy recognized in shade but in sunshine they show their hind wings with green metallic flash for territorial and courtship behavior. 

Male with blue hind wing, photographed by Cuong Do, Quang Binh Province

Male with green flash hind wing, photographed by Cuong Do, Quang Binh Province

Blue hind wing male, photographed by Cuong Do, Hon Ba, Khanh Hoa Province

Euphaea decorata Hagen in Selys, 1853

Medium sized damselfly, the mature form flies during rain season, they have been known as a common species in South East Asia. The teneral form has black synthorax marking with dusk yellow marking but it change into dull black in mature form. The fore-wings of male are hyaline and its hind-wings are hyaline with black spot at 1/3 apex. In female, wings are brownish hyaline.

They found at running clean streams in dark or open forests, they usually perch on stones just above water surface or branch of trees 1-3 m above water level. As perching, they some time open or clap the wings (both pair of wings or just hind wings) in sunshine. The males usually fight each other for protecting their territory and mate with coming females which often rest at higher above.

Male, photo by Cuong Do, Ba Vi National Park

Male in opened wings position, photographed by Cuong Do, Tam Dao National Park

 Male, photographed by Cuong Do, Tam Dao National Park

Cryptophaea vietnamensis (Tol & Rozendaal, 1995)

In 1995, Tol found this species in Vu Quang National Park, the centre of Vietnam and named it Babaydera vietnamica. In the description, Tol only described the male, without knowing of female. Some years later, Wilson and Reel  found both male and female in China and they did the description of female of the species. In his paper, the species was revised and changed to Schmidtiphaea genus. Hamalainen based on his study of holotype of Schmidtiphaea and specimen of vietnamica, he erected the new genus Cryptophaea from Schmidtiphaea and moved vietnamica into it. The genus was named after Christophe Columbus in looking back on his discovery of unknown continent, America.
They are medium-small size insects; and not like the male, the female of C. vietnamica is very colourful; she has orange marking on the body with remarkable big marking on her thorax. The male is very simple in colour, with dull dark blue-violet marking on the body. In teneral form, the male are black with cream green marking. They wings are hyaline with somehow petiolate at base.

They live at clear swift streams in pristine forests of limestone mountain. Females of the species usually perch about 1.5 to 2 metres above water while males fly in the nearby forests. In rain season, the female is more common than the male.

Male, photographed by Cuong Do, Tam Dao National Park

Young male, photographed by Cuong Do, Tam Dao National Park

Female with orange marking thorax, photographed by Cuong Do, Tam Dao National Park

Wednesday, April 16, 2014

Heliocypha biforata biforata (Selys, 1859)

Very similar to H. perforata, they are also black and cobalt-bluish marking damselflies. Their wings are narrow like H. perforata but the iridescent areas on the wings are broader. Males of the species are distinct by markings on the synthorax and the abdomen. The abdomen of male is stouter than it of H. perforata, with distinct blue markings on lateral side of each segment. Females have no valuable in identification of the species. Their habitats, territorial and courtship behaviours are very similar to it of H. perforata, but H. b. biforata prefer opened running waters. They are widespread species but distribute locally.

Young male, photographed by Cuong Do, Quang Binh

Thorax marking of full mature male, photographed by Cuong Do, Phu Yen

Heliocypha perforata perforata (Percheron, 1835)

The black and cobalt-blue damselflies, they are similar to H. biforata generally. The triangle on mesepisternum on synthorax is smaller than it of Aritocypha fenestrela and there is a pink marking on the posterior edge of prothorax as well as on two sides of the synthorax. Thorax and abdomen are marked with white cobalt-bluish at lateral view. The mid and hind legs of male are black with white tibia. Same to H. biforata, wings of H. p. perforata are narrow in comparing to A. fenestrella but the iridescent area on the wing of male is smaller than H. biforata. Blue markings on the abdomen of male are also good characteristics to separate this species to H. biforata. The colour of male changes in stronger after teneral stage. The female are less colourful, they are black with cream-bluish mark on thorax and smoky hyaline wing, and the external morphological characteristics of female have no value in identification of the species.

They live in swift and high concentrate of oxygen flowing waters in primitive forests or secondary forests. Male are active flying insects, their territory is around floating timbers or rocks on water surface while female usually perches on higher positions. They are not too common species but distribute nearly whole the country.

 Male with red parasites, photographed by Cuong Do, Huu Lien, Lang Son

Two males in flying dance, photographed by Cuong Do, Hu Lien, Lang Son

Libellago lineata (Burmeister, 1839)

Name of the species was named after C. Linnae, the father of taxonomy who developed the natural systematic.

They are tiny damselfly with two colours of the body of the males: deep black and brighten yellow. Wings are hyaline with orange-brownish at base and the fore wing has an apical dark spot. The species are one of smallest of chlorocyphid damselflies. The thorax of male is deep black with brighten yellow strip markings on both dorsal and lateral sides. Legs of male are black with while tibia on ventral side. The abdomen of male is somehow depressed with light yellow marking dorsally on basal and middle segments while the apical segments are deep black. Female of the species is stout and duller and simpler in colour with hyaline wings and fade pterostigma. They inhabit at running waters in secondary forests or opaque rivers. Males commonly protect their territory around fallen timbers, and mate with arriving females. Females oviposit into the floating logs.

Male, photographed by Cuon Do, Mai Chau, Hoa Binh

Male, photographed by Nguyen Ba Quang, Ma Da, Dong Nai Province 23 August 2015

Female, photographed by Nguyen Ba Quang, Ma Da, Dong Nai Province 23 August 2015

Rhinocypha watsoni Tol & Rozendaal, 1995

In 1995, Tol and Rozendaal described this species base on specimens collected from Bach Ma National Park, Thua Thien Hue Province. Recently, this species also were recorded in Khanh Hoa Province and it made their distribution had been known wider to the south of the country.

They are small damselflies, with nearly unicolour body. The head is dull black; the thorax is dark with red dark brown marking and yellow strip marking on lateral side of the synthorax. Legs of male are black, with white inner side tibia of middle legs. In male, fore wings are hyaline but hind wing hyaline with an iridescence area at tip. And in the iridescence area, there is a distinct apical metallic blue flash spot. Females are fader than males with dusk hyaline wings.

This damselfly was found in the centre to south of Vietnam in the forests on high mountains with elevation from 700 to more than 1000m. They are found next to shaded clean streams in pristine forests; usually share their habitat with D. cyanocephala. Particularly we found them in Hon Ba Nature Reserve, Khanh Hoa province as they were flying in the jungle at the coming out area of underground streams.

The damselfly is somehow active species, males usually perch middle or high above that water surface but they do not fly far from breeding sites, where are clean and swift flowing streams.

Male, photographed by Cuong Do, Bach Ma National Park, Thua Thien Hue

Rhinocypha seducta Hamalainen & Karube, 2001

Base on specimens that were collected from Bao Loc, Lam Dong Province, in 2001, Hamalainen and Karube described this species as a new for science. Now, their distribution was reported in many localities of high land in south of the country.

It is colorful and enigmatic species, a rare species but quite common locally. Males and females are similar but females are lightly duller. In males, the head is deep black with orange-red spots marking, the thorax dull black with dark orange-red strips on thorax on both dorsal and lateral sides. The fore wings are hyaline; each hind wing is hyaline with an apical iridescent spot. The abdomen is somehow elongate, dull black and unicolour.

The species lives in pristine or lightly disturbed forests on high lands of Southern Vietnam, where the temperature is not too high and they are very humid forests. The mature forms do not fly very far from their breeding sites, so they are not so active insects. Males of this species usually perch up above the water which is muddy streams. They fly up and down and spend most of the time for perching on leafs or branches of trees above the stream. They are very sensitive to temperature and humidity of environment. They usually perched very high up to the canopy, and they got down gradually as sunlight went directly to the surface of the forest. Hiding in deep shade of the forest, they got down and perched near the stream where the humidity high enough. But immediately, after the sun was covered by clouds, they flew up to the higher positions. Their territory is very narrow area but they some time have vivid courtship daces, the male try to protect his own territory by showing to his neighbour the golden flash spots of his hind wings and the action just little above the water surface.

Male, photographed by Cuong Do, Da Lat, Lam Dong

Face and thorax of male, photographed by Cuong Do, Da Lat, Lam Dong

Aristocypha fenestrella (Rambur, 1842)

Aristocypha fenestrella is one of the odonate species with wide range of altitudinal distribution (0-1700 m). It is one of several common mountain stream damselflies and widespread species.

They are small glittered damselfly with broad violet wings. The body of male is deep black basically with some yellow stripes on thorax and a particular triangular purple marking on dorsal of synthorax. Head is uncoloured black in both male and female with the swollen clypeus as characteristic of the family. Fore wings are narrow, hyaline and some how brownish and hind wings are much broader, with shining violet cell areas insert into dark background. Wings of female just are hyaline or hyaline-brownish. Legs of mature male are very typical with tibia developed to be broader and white coloured. The colours of teneral males usually are fader than it of mature forms.

Those damselflies usually are found in the primary forests, the mature forms fly around their breeding sites which are clear, swift streams. Although they are forest species, this species is quite common, they are widespread species and could be found in whole of the country.

It is one of the most active species of the family with and males are strict territorial individuals. Each male usually appropriates a micro-habitat (a rock, floating timber or a branch of tree..) near the water surface. And when another male enters his territory, rival flying dance will be observed. In courtship flying dance of male and female, or rival flying dance of males, the male usually stay-flies in the air and shows his flash violet hind wing and white tibia of his legs to the partner. A territorial flying between two males take place from some second to many minutes.

Larvae of the species live in sand, gravel swift streams; they are very typical with two long filament gills at the end of abdomen.

Young male, photographed by Cuong Do, Ba Vi National Park

Mature male in full color, photographed by Cuong Do, Hon Ba, Khanh Hoa

Mature male in full color, photographed by Dang Ngoc Tu, Tu Son, Hoa Binh

Female, photographed by Cuong Do, Hon Ba, Khanh Hoa

Philoganga vetusta Ris, 1912

This species was described by Ris in 1921 in the taxonomy descriptions of Odonata that had been collected from Taiwan, South China, Tonkin (Vietnam) and Philippine.

A robust damselfly, rest with the wings in a horizontal position. The face, thorax and abdomen are black with green and yellow marking. The colour of the body changes in states of the body developing. The teneral form is very fade with light brown and bright yellow marking, then the body changes into shining black with yellow and green marking or orange marking. They are petiolated wing damselflies, but with many antenodal cross veins on the wings.

They live in jungles and the larvae live in the clear running water with muddy or rocky bottom, under shade of the forests. They usually are found in good forest of limestone mountain areas but occasionally found in secondary forests where the nature environment is not disturbed too much.

They are weak flying damselflies and usually rest highly in the bush of branch of trees.

Male, eating a fly, photographe by Cuong Do, Quang Binh

A young male, photographed by Cuong Do, Tam Dao National Park