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Tuesday, July 29, 2014

Eterusia tricolor Hope, 1840 Day Flying Moth, Zygaenidae

Eterusia tricolor is a species of moth belong to Zygaenidae family, they are day-flying moths with very colorful wings. Members of the family have been know with hydrogen cyanide in all states of their life cycle. Color of the insects is signal of information that they are toxic insects and they use hydrogen cyanide as a defense factor to protect them from predator.

Eterusia tricolor is quite common species in high mountains of Vietnam, they are weak flying insects and usually fly over the canopy of the forests. As being damaged, they release from their body some drops (mixed with air) of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) as a defensing behavior.

A individual of Eterusia tricolor

A being touched, the insect releases a droplet of hydrogen cyanide (HCN)

Wednesday, July 23, 2014

How to access the male genitalia of a dragonfly specimen?

Studying genitalia is a very importation work of odonatological research, dragonfly and damselfly are difference in structure of genitalia. Steps below will let you know how I do my analyzing of structure of penis organ of a male specimen of Gomphidae (Anisoptera, dragonfly) without damaging the specimen.

Specimens in my collection

Release the dried male specimen from envelope (zip bag)


Fix the specimen on a small foam board with insect pins

Transfer the specimen into a box

Prepare the hot water (left) and a syringe


Puming the hot water to second abdomen segment area without making other part be wet (about 2 or 3 times, up to how hard/dried specimen is)

Check the specimen if the second abdomen segment area already wet and flexible enough to access the penis organ.

Transfer specimen to larger foam board and fix the body, wings and abdomen

Move the specimen to microscope

Under microscopic view, dig out the penis organ of the dragonfly then fix it in visible position with insect pins


Tranfer the specimen in fix position into a box with silica-gel 

Cover the box and keep in dark area until the specimen to be hard.

Now your specimen are ready for take photo or drawing of detail structure of penis organ.

Some my completed figures of penis organ of Gomphidae for publication

Sunday, July 20, 2014

Rhinocypha fulgipennis Guérin-Méneville, 1831

This species is a colorful wings damselfly that belong to Chlorocyphidae family, the genus name maybe because of its structure of the face with a object that is prominence forms a rhino face shape.

The small species is one of the most early species that was described as a new species for science from Vietnamese fauna of Odonata. The holotype was collected from South Vietnam with note as Cocochina area. Recently, this species has been found also from Cambodia and Laos.

They are very sensitive species that found near that clean running water (waterfalls, streams) of shadowed forests in low land areas. In a quick observation, this species is easy to misidentified with another common species, the species Rhinocypha fenestrella. However they are clearly difference in color and color marking of the wings.

Lateral view of male of Rhinocypha fulgipennis, photographed by Cuong Do

Friday, July 18, 2014

Protosticta khaosoidaoensis Asahina, 1984

This species was described by Asahina from Thailand, the name of the species specifies the locality of holotype.

They are green brow and elongate damselflies with very slim typical abdomen. The head is dark green with shining emerald green compose eyes. The labrum is bright white make it quite remarkable in dark of the forest. The round prothorax is same colour to the labrum in both dorsal and lateral sides. Their synthorax is shining green in dorsal side but it change to red brownish with white or cream yellow marking on lateral sides.  Their wings are hyaline with dark pterostigma, length of the wing is shorter haft of the abdomen. Their legs are dust white brow. The abdomen is round, long and slim with the segments are shining black at apical and white cream at base except two last segments. They are short and thick; the basal one is dull black white the apical one is cream white. The anal appendages of male are black.

This species has the same size to Protosticta santoi but they are difference in color of the body and structure of anal appendages.

The species was found in cleaning running water in pristine forests and distribute from North to South of Vietnam. The larvae of this species usually hide under dead leafs of the water.

They fly in the dark of the forests but never fly far away their breeding sides. Some time they were found at vegetation under waterfalls of rocky mountain in very high humidity condition. They fly slowly above dark vegetation layer just over the ground surface of the forests.

Male of P. khaosoidaoensis, photographed by Cuong Do

Male of P. khaosoidaoensis with bend upward abdomen, photographed by Cuong Do

Teneral female of P. khaosoidaoensis, photographed by Cuong Do

Saturday, July 12, 2014

Chalcosoma causasus (Fabricius, 1801) from South Center of Vietnam

Chalcosoma causasus is one of large size species of Dynastinae (Scarabaeidae family) beetles that found from Vietnam. The species is closed to Chalcosoma atlas and very similar in shape but there is a small spine (horn) on the middle large horn from the head of beelte.

Same to other beetles of Dynastinae, Chalcosoma causasus has also large form and small form in males, they have been found from Dak Nong Province, South Center of Vietnam. The species is more rarer than its related species Chalcosoma atlas.

Large form of male of Chalcosoma causasus, in dorsal view (above) and oblique view (below)

Large form of male of Chalcosoma causasus, view front view.

Small form of male of Chalcosoma causasus, in dorsal view (above) and oblique view (below)

Wednesday, July 9, 2014

Casiphia, reduced elytra long horn beelts from Vietnam

There are two species of Casiphia from Vietnam, the males of the genus with reduced elytra and they are one of very interesting prioninae of Vietnamese fauna. Casiphia vietnamica found from Tam Dao National Park while Casiphia takukawai found from Pu Mat National Park, Nghe An Provincee. Not like almost of other Prionid beeltes, species of genus Casiphia can be collected by catching during the day, not light trap.

Except the elytra of the males, antenna of males also very special shape with combed form. While male of species Casiphia vietnamica is black or red black, the species Casiphia takakuwai has two forms, black form and yellow (orange) forms. 

Casiphia takakuwai male have elytra shape clearly difference from it of Casiphia vietnamica. In C. takakuwai there is a spine at apical lateral side of elytra but in C. vietnamica, there is no spine in the same position and the elytra somehow look shorter.

Casiphia vietnamica, female (above) and male (below)

Black form of Casiphia takakuwai

Tuesday, July 8, 2014

Endemic species of Lucanus from Vietnam

There are 8 species of Lucanus that known only from Vietnam, they usually collected in good forest mountain areas with elevation over 700m.

2. Lucanus fujitai (from Fujita 2010)

3. Lucanus fukinukae (from Fujita, 2010)

4. Lucanus luci (from original descrption), this species found from Ngoc Linh, Kon Tum Province (South Center of Vietnam) with large populations.

5. Lucanus kraatzi giangae, this species has been found both from Vietnam and China but the subspecies has known as an endemic taxon of Vietnam, found from Cao Bang Province, North Vietnam

6. Lucanus ngheanus (from Fujita, 2010), the specimens of type were collected from Pu Mat, Nghe An Province, however later this species also be found in Ngoc Linh, Kon Tum Province

7. Lucanus persariini (from Fujita, 2010)

My previous post on Lucanus persariini now is considered as Lucanus pulchelus (8) however its situation should be reviewed in the future.

Saturday, July 5, 2014

Checklist of Danaidae of Vietnam

  1. Danais affinis malayana   (Fruhstorfer,1899)
  2. Danaus chrysippus chrysippus   (Linnaeus,1758)
  3. Danaus genutia genutia   (Cramer,[1779])
  4. Euploea algea menetriesii   Felder & Felder,1860
  5. Euploea camaralzeman camaralzeman   Butler,1866
  6. Euploea conbuom   Saito & Inayoshi,2006
  7. Euploea core godartii   Lucas,1853
  8. Euploea crameri praedicabilis   Fruhstorfer,1914
  9. Euploea doubledayi doubledayi   Felder & Felder,[1865]
  10. Euploea eunice coelestis   (Fruhstorfer,[1902])
  11. Euploea eyndhovii gardineri   (Fruhstorfer,1898)
  12. Euploea klugii erichsonii   Felder & Felder,[1865]
  13. Euploea midamus chloe   (Guerin-Meneville,[1843])
  14. Euploea modesta modesta   Butler,1866
  15. Euploea mulciber mulciber   (Cramer,[1777])
  16. Euploea phaenareta drucei   Moore,1883
  17. Euploea radamanthus radamanthus   (Fabricius,1793)
  18. Euploea sylvester harrisii   Felder & Felder,[1865]
  19. Euploea tulliolus dehaani   Lucas,1853
  20. Ideopsis similis persimilis   (Moore,1879)
  21. Ideopsis vulgaris contigua   (Talbot,1939)
  22. Parantica aglea melanoides   Moore,1883
  23. Parantica agleoides agleoides   (Felder & Felder,1860)
  24. Parantica aspasia aspasia   (Fabricius,1787)
  25. Parantica melaneus   (Cramer,[1775])
  26. Parantica sita melanosticta   Morishita,1994
  27. Parantica sita sita   (Kollar,[1844])
  28. Parantica swinhoei szechuana   (Fruhstorfer,1899)
  29. Tirumala gautama gautama   (Moore,1877)
  30. Tirumala limniace limniace   (Cramer,[1775])
  31. Tirumala septentrionis septentrionis   (Butler,1874)

Checklist of Papilionidae of Vietnam

  1. Atrophaneura aidoneus   (Doubleday,1845)
  2. Atrophaneura varuna astorion   (Westwood,1842)
  3. Atrophaneura varuna zaleucus   (Hewitson,[1865])
  4. Byasa adamsoni adamsoni   (Grose-Smith,1886)
  5. Byasa confusus mansonensis   (Fruhstorfer,1901)
  6. Byasa crassipes   (Oberthur,1893)
  7. Byasa dasarada barata   (Rothschild,1908)
  8. Byasa hedistus   (Jordan,1928)
  9. Byasa latreillei robus   (Jordan,1928)
  10. Byasa nevilli   (Wood-Mason,1882)
  11. Byasa polyeuctes polyeuctes   (Doubleday,1842)
  12. Graphium agamemnon agamemnon   (Linnaeus,1758)
  13. Graphium agetes agetes   (Westwood,1843)
  14. Graphium antiphates pompilius   (Fabricius,1787)
  15. Graphium aristeus hermocrates   (Felder & Felder,1865)
  16. Graphium arycles sphinx   (Fruhstorfer,1899)
  17. Graphium cloanthus cloanthus   (Westwood,1841)
  18. Graphium chironides chironides   (Honrath,1884)
  19. Graphium doson axion   (Felder & Felder,1864)
  20. Graphium doson robinson   Monastyrskii,2012
  21. Graphium eurous
  22. Graphium eurous inthanon   Katayama,1986
  23. Graphium evemon albociliatis   (Fruhstorfer,1901)
  24. Graphium leechi   (Rothschild,1895)
  25. Graphium macareus indochinensis   (Fruhstorfer,1901)
  26. Graphium mandarinus mandarinus   (Oberthur,1879)
  27. Graphium megarus megapenthes   (Fruhstorfer,1902)
  28. Graphium mullah kooichii   (Morita,1996)
  29. Graphium nomius swinhoei   (Moore,1878)
  30. Graphium phidias   (Oberthur,1906)
  31. Graphium sarpedon islander   Monastyrskii,2012
  32. Graphium sarpedon sarpedon   (Linnaeus,1758)
  33. Graphium xenocles kephisos   (Fruhstorfer,1902)
  34. Graphium xenocles lindos   (Fruhstorfer,1902)
  35. Lamproptera curius curius   (Fabricius,1787)
  36. Lamproptera curius walkeri   (Moore,1902)
  37. Lamproptera meges annamiticus   (Fruhstorfer,1909)
  38. Lamproptera meges virescens   (Butler,[1870])
  39. Losaria coon doubledayi   (Wallace,1865)
  40. Meandrusa lachinus aribbas   (Fruhstorfer,1909)
  41. Meandrusa lachinus helenusoides   Funahashi,2003
  42. Meandrusa lachinus sukkiti   Nakano,1995
  43. Meandrusa payeni langsonensis   (Fruhstorfer,1901)
  44. Meandrusa sciron hajiangensis   Funahashi,2003
  45. Pachliopta aristolochiae goniopeltis   (Rothschild,1908)
  46. Papilio agestor agestor   Gray,1831
  47. Papilio agestor kuangtungensis   Mell,1935
  48. Papilio alcmenor alcmenor   Felder & Felder,1865
  49. Papilio arcturus arcturus   Westwood,1842
  50. Papilio bianor gladiator   Fruhstorfer,[1902]
  51. Papilio castor dioscurus   Jordan,1909
  52. Papilio castor mahadeva   Moore,[1879]
  53. Papilio clytia clytia   Linnaeus,1758
  54. Papilio demoleus demoleus   Linnaeus,1758
  55. Papilio demoleus malayanus   Wallace,1865
  56. Papilio demolion demolion   Cramer,[1776]
  57. Papilio dialis doddsi   Janet,1896
  58. Papilio elwesi   Leech,1889
  59. Papilio epycides hypochra   Jordan,1909
  60. Papilio epycides imitata   (Monastyrskii & Devyatkin,2003)
  61. Papilio helenus helenus   Linnaeus,1758
  62. Papilio krishna charlesi   Fruhstorfer,1902
  63. Papilio machaon verityi   Fruhstorfer,1907
  64. Papilio memnon agenor   Linnaeus,1758
  65. Papilio nephelus chaon   Westwood,1845
  66. Papilio noblei   de Niceville,[1889]
  67. Papilio paradoxa telearchus   Hewitson,1852
  68. Papilio paris paris   Linnaeus,1758
  69. Papilio polytes polytes   Linnaeus,1758
  70. Papilio polytes romulus   Cramer,[1775]
  71. Papilio prexaspes duboisi   Vitalis,1914
  72. Papilio protenor euprotenor   Fruhstorfer,1908
  73. Papilio slateri marginata   Obertur,1893
  74. Papilio slateri slateri   Hewitson,[1859]
  75. Papilio xuthus   Linnaeus,1767
  76. Teinopalpus aureus eminens   Turlin,1991
  77. Teinopalpus aureus shinkaii   Morita,1998
  78. Teinopalpus imperialis imperatrix   de Niceville,1899
  79. Troides aeacus aeacus   (Felder & Felder,1860)
  80. Troides helena cerberus   (Felder & Felder,1865)

Friday, July 4, 2014

Sataspes, carpenter bee mimicry hawk moths

Sataspes is a genus of hawk moth, Sphigidae, name of genus is meaning a Persian navigator who is cavalry commander that lead cavalry solders (horse solders). The name is a combination of two parts: sat = 100 and asp = horse with meaning of mun-ti horse team leader.

In Vietnam there are two species (among 9 species of the world) were recorded: Sataspes infernalis and Sataspes tagalica. The previous difference from the later species remarkably in the yellow marking by scales on the dorsal side of the abdomen segments.

Sataspes infernalis from Pia Oac, Cao Bang Province, North Vietnam, photographed by Cuong Do in a cloudy day (elevation about 2000m)

This moth mimic to carpenter bee both in shape and size of the body. Carpenter bee is insects of the genus Xylocopa, they are large size bee and distribute world wide. They build their nests in dead wood (bamboo, timbers...) so they are called carpenter, however some of them have nests in the ground. Xylocopa in Greek meaning wood cutter.